Methods for detecting the presence of genetically modified (GM) crops are evolving to comply with legislation and to enhance monitoring by biotechnology companies and regulators. In order to cover a broad range of detection methods for a new GM crop, conventional multiplex PCR methods are required. Based on the genetic information on three GM alfalfa varieties (J101, J163, and KK179), which were recently approved in South Korea, we developed a fast, reliable, and highly specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with basic PCR equipment and inexpensive reagents. To validate and verify the newly developed multiplex PCR method, we applied a limit of detection assay and random reference material analysis. We also monitored the unintentional environmental release of GM alfalfa in South Korea by performing the multiplex PCR analysis with 91 feral alfalfa specimens collected from 2000 to 2018. Our methodology is a sensitive, simple, quick, and inexpensive tool for detecting and identifying three GM alfalfa varieties.